Soal dan Pembahasan The Pterosaurs – Secara umum materi reading dapat dipelajari pada pelajaran TOEFL. Pada pelajaran TOEFL terdapat materi reading yang soalnya akan dibagikan pada tulisan ini beserta pembahasannya.
This text is for questions 1 to 9.
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features. If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The birds call for high waves to channels updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the …
A. enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enable them to fly great distances
B. structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
C. fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
D. pterosaurs were reptiles
E. pterosaurs walked on all fours.
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Hal ini dapat disimpulkan dari bagian bahwa para ilmuwan sekarang umumnya setuju bahwa …”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (D) pterosaurs were reptiles
2. The authors views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as …
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Penulis memandang gagasan bahwa pterosaurus mengudara dengan naik ke angin ringan yang diciptakan oleh gelombang sebagai …”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (B) unlikely
3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the …
A. size of its wingspan
B. presence of hollow spaces in its bones
C. anatomic origin of its wing strut
D. presence of hook like projections on its hind feet
E. location of the shoulder joint joining the wind to its body
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Menurut bagian itu, kerangka pterosaurus dapat dibedakan dari kerangka burung dengan …”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
4. The ides attributed to T.H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A. An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
B. An animal’s appearance dramatically over a period of time.
C. Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance
D. The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome
E. The pterosaurs should be classifieds as birds, not reptiles.
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Ide-ide yang dikaitkan dengan T.H. Huxley dalam bagian itu menyarankan bahwa dia kemungkinan besar akan setuju dengan pernyataan mana di bawah ini?”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (B) An animal’s appearance dramatically over a period of time.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
A. They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
B. They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight
C. They flew in order to capture prey
D. They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds
E. The lived primarily in a forest like habitat.
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Dari bacaan tersebut dapat disimpulkan, manakah di bawah ini yang merupakan ciri-ciri pterosaurus?”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
A. New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view
B. Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
C. Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidenced supporting each is given.
D. Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected
E. A summary of the materials in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Manakah dari berikut ini yang paling menggambarkan organisasi paragraf terakhir dari bacaan tersebut?”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs …
A. lived near large bodies of water
B. had sharp teeth for tearing food
C. were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
D. had longer tails than many birds
E. consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Dapat disimpulkan dari bacaan tersebut bahwa beberapa ilmuwan percaya bahwa pterosaurus …”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (A) lived near large bodies of water
8. Which of the following is the principle topic of the passage?
A. What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering
B. Why income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty
C. Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
D. Where the areas of agreement are among poverty, employment, and earnings figures
E. How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Manakah dari berikut ini yang merupakan topik utama dari bacaan tersebut?”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (E) How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities
9. The author uses “labor market problems” in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following?
A. The over all causes of poverty
B. Deficiencies in the training of the work force
C. Trade relationships among producers of goods
D. Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
E. Strikes and inadequate supplies of labor
Pada soal di atas menanyakan “Penulis menggunakan “labor market problems” pada baris 1-2 untuk merujuk pada yang mana dari berikut ini?”.
Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah (D) Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
Sekian Soal dan Pembahasan The Pterosaurs the fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates the pterosaurs. Semoga the fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates the pterosaurs Soal dan Pembahasan The Pterosaurs tadi dapat membantu teman-teman dalam belajar TOEFL.
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the fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates the pterosaurs